The total area of the FBR is 442 250 hectares, which is appropriate to serve the three functions of the biosphere reserve. The approximate areas of the FBR zones are as follows:
20 600 hectares
26 124 hectares
395 552 hectares
These areas are securely protected sites for conserving biological diversity, monitoring minimally disturbed ecosystems, and undertaking non-destructive research and other low-impact uses (such as education).
Fundy National Park is selected as the Core Area of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve for several reasons. It is a large contiguous area with a low level of natural or man made disturbance in the last 60 years, it has long-term legal protection under federal legislation and is dedicated to preserving the ecological integrity of lands. In addition, there is an open dialogue with adjacent land managers intended to reach reasonable decisions related to mitigating the potential effects of operational projects. It also has an active habitat restoration program that is promoted outside, as well as inside the park. It is a long term protected area, shares the same limits as the Fundy National Park and acts as a reference point.
These areas must be clearly identified, and usually surround or adjoin the Core Areas. Buffer Zones may be used for cooperative activities compatible with sound ecological practices, including environmental education, recreation, ecotourism and applied and basic research. These areas also represent a transition in the intensity of land use ranging from legally protected areas to lands that are being intensively managed for resource extraction and are managed in ways that support the conservation objectives of the Core Area.
The lands chosen to represent the Buffer Zone are all the other protected areas, conservation areas and special management areas that exist in the FBR area. Rational for inclusion of all protected areas, other than the Core Area, in the Buffer Zone is that most have been in existence for a relatively short time period compared to Fundy National Park. Management strategies for some protected Buffer Zones are evolving and there is subjectivity involved in the degree of protection and utilization permitted in the various Buffer Zones.
The Transition Area consists of provincial Crown lands, federal Crown lands, large industrial freehold forest lands, small private woodlots, agricultural and dyked marshlands, municipalities, roads, highways and energy corridors. The ecosystems of the Bay of Fundy were subject to a wide variety of human-influences that have brought about significant change in the landscape, distribution of species, and supply of habitat for those species. The primary objective of the FBR, in terms of the Transition Area is to create a multi-sector forum to facilitate the analyses of changes and potential environmental consequences. The development and sharing of knowledge across resource sectors will provide an improved scientific and socioeconomic basis to plan for the conservation and restoration of native biodiversity. It also acts as an area of cooperation were resources are utilized and managed in a sustainable manner to generate revenues.